Self-harm is the act of deliberately injuring oneself, most often through cutting the behavior is also called non-suicidal self-injury, or nssi it is generally often a sign of intense anxiety or. The rising incidence of self-mutilation may reflect the proliferation of high-stress conditions, such as domestic violence or upheaval, pressure to succeed academically, and peer pressure studies show adolescents begin this behavior to relieve stress. Understanding and responding to students who self-mutilate richard lieberman los angeles unified school district suicide prevention unit (818) 705-7326 [email protected] challenges to school site crisis teams. During this nonsuicidal self-injury interview, we were talking to the child separately, without the parent present, hankin explained cutting, burning and head banging are self-injury methods, along with inserting sharp objects into skin or nails, skin picking, biting, or pulling hair to cause pain.
This article reviews current literature on self-mutilation, comprises a definition, examines gender differences, and describes the profile of the self-mutilator in order that school counselors and other personnel may make accurate risk assessments precipitating events are described to aid school. People who self-injure are more likely to be highly self-critical and be poor problem-solvers in addition, self-injury is commonly associated with certain mental disorders, such as borderline personality disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and eating disorders. Self-harm, self-injury, and self-mutilation are often used interchangeably some researchers have categorized self-mutilation as a form of self-injury self-injury is characterized as any sort of self-harm that involves inflicting injury or pain on one's own body. Self-injury (cutting, self-harm or self-mutilation) self-injury, also known as self-harm, self-mutilation, or self-abuse occurs when someone intentionally and repeatedly harms herself/himself in a way that is impulsive and not intended to be lethal.
Most self-injury researchers agree that self-injury does show some addictive qualities and may serve as a form of self-medication for some individuals in our studies with college students, about a third of those who report using self-injury regularly report having a difficult time controlling their urge to self-injure. The most common form of self-injury is cutting or scratching the skin with anything that can draw blood, such as razors or even paperclips and pen caps, but people also self-injure by burning themselves, picking at skin and wounds, or hitting themselves. Nasp nasp center mental health children's mental health depression: when it hurts to be a teenager understanding and responding to students who self-mutilate. Self-embedding is an extreme form of self-injury, in which people (typically adolescents) insert objects into their body parts to deliberately hurt themselves or mutilate their bodies without. An example of contemporary behaviors that are relatively different than previous generations is the growth in frequency of many forms of self-mutilation some examples include cutting, scratching, picking at scabs or cuts, ingesting toxic materials, and pinching that causes bruising.
While a student who self-injures should not be treated solely within the school environment whenever practicable, the following skill-sets would be appropriate for school counselors and school psychologists to address when they work with self-injuring students. The most common precipitant to a student suicide is an interpersonal conflict or loss, usually with parents or a romantic relationship ongoing family conflict, physical or sexual abuse, and impending legal or disciplinary matters are also associated with suicidal acts. Given that self-injury, self-harm, and suicide attempts are a growing area of study, reliance on current and previous data sources for analysis of self-injury and self-harm behaviors can be used in order to highlight possible areas for research. Self-mutilation (sm) or self-injurious behavior is an act directed towards one's self, which results textbooks used by students and residents in. Michael shufelt moyer associate professor department of counseling counseling students who self-mutilate professional school counseling, 7(4), 231.
Self mutilation, a feature of self harm or self injury, is intentional injury to one's own body tissues without an accompanying, conscious intention to commit suicide although this behavior can appear similar to a suicide attempt, the phrase deliberate self harm is preferred rather than. Working with students who self-injure ybe aware of your own reactions and feelings ymonitor and manage reactions yassess your comfort in working with students who si yif there is discomfort, immediately refer student to. Cutting and self-harm can be a way of coping with problems it may help you express feelings you can't put into words, distract you from your life, or release emotional pain afterwards, you probably feel better—at least for a little while.
Professional counseling digest acapcd-18 2008 self-injury: counseling youth who self-mutilate chris simpson, phd and samuel k bore, med self-injury has become a topic of intense study and. Students who self-mutilate by improving awareness about the causes and signs of the behavior and establishing appropriate procedures for response richard lieberman is a school psychologist who leads the los angeles unified.
Superficial /moderate self-mutilation is the most prevalent type and includes skin-cutting and burning, interference with wound healing, self-punching, and extensive scratching. This article explores ethical considerations that school counselors may need to address when providing coun-seling services to self-injurious students. Pathological self-mutilating behavior has been clinically examined for over 65 years (doctors, 1981)we have a considerable amount of descriptive information about self-mutilating patients and the behavior itself and recent research is beginning to reveal the possible psychophysiological mechanisms associated with self-mutilation (eg, haines et al 1995, simeon et al 1992.